SD-40 Operator Manual Cover
SD-40 Operator Manual Title Page
The data appearing in this manual is intended as a guide and as an aid in explaining the locomotive equipment used during operation. It is generally applicable to the basic locomotive, that is, a locomotive without optional extra equipment. Some data is also included for a number of the more frequently used extras. When special extra equipment is involved, consult specific drawings or instructions as provided by the railroad.
The information contained in this manual is based on data available when released for printing.
Minor differences encountered in equipment are due to changes made after the manual was sent to press. These changes will be covered in subsequent editions of this manual.
his manual has been prepared to serve as a guide to railroad personnel engaged in the operation of the 3000 horsepower General Motors Model SD40 turbocharged diesel-electric locomotive.
The contents are divided into four sections as follows:
1. General Description - Provides general description of principal equipment components.
2. Cab Controls - Explains functions of cab control equipment used in operating the locomotive.
3. Operation - Outlines procedures for operation of the locomotive.
4. Trouble Shooting - Describes cause, location and correction of possible troubles occurring during operation.
A block of page numbers is allocated to each section, Section 1 starting with page 101, Section 2 with 201 and the others following in this manner. Figures are identified by section and sequence. For example: Fig. 2-3 is the third figure used in Section 2.
To obtain the most benefit from this manual, it is recommended that the sections be read in the sequence in which they appear.
Information pertaining to maintenance, adjustment, and testing is contained in the SD40 Locomotive Manual. Instructions for testing and maintenance of dividual locomotive components will remain a part of the standard EMD Maintenance Instruction bulletin series.
|Locomotive Type||(C-C) 0660|
|Diesel Engine Model||645E3|
|- - Type||Turbocharged|
|- - Number Of Cylinders||16 Cylinder|
|- - Arrangement||45 "V"|
|- - Cylinder Bore And Stroke||9-1/16" x 10"|
|- - Operating Principle||2 Stroke Cycle, Turbocharged, Unit Injection, Water Cooled|
|- - Full Speed||900 RPM|
|- - Idle Speed||315 RPM|
|Main Generator Model||AR10-D14|
|- Traction Alternator (Rectified Output)||AR10|
|- - Number Of Poles||10|
|- - Nominal Voltage (DC)||600|
|- - Frequency (at 900 RPM)||75cps|
|- Companion Alternator||D14|
|- - Nominal Voltage (AC)||180|
|- - Number Of Poles||16|
|- - Frequency (At 900 RPM)||120 cps|
|Auxiliary Generator Voltage (DC)||74|
|- Rating -||10KW|
|- Type||DC, Series Wound Axle Hung|
|- Number||6 Pair|
Maximum Speed Options With Gear Ratio
|Gear Ratio||Top Speed*
*Based on rated RPM of traction motors.
|- - Type||2 Stage|
|- - Number Of Cylinders||3|
|- - Capacity (At 900 RPM)||254 Cu. Ft./Min.|
|- - Air Compressor Cooling||Water|
|- - Lube Oil Capacity||10-1/2 Gal.|
|- - Number Of Cells||32|
|- - Voltage||64|
|- - Rating (8 Hour)||420 Amp Hr.|
|- - Lubricating Oil Capacity||243 Gal.|
|- - With Deep Sump Oil Pan||395 Gal.|
|- - Cooling Water Capacity||254 Gal.|
|- - Fuel Capacity (Basic)||3200 Gal.|
|- - - - With Extra Capacity||4000 Gal.|
|- - Sand||56 Cu. Ft.|
|Air Brakes||Type 26L|
|Approximate Weight On Rails||368,000 lbs.|
|- - Length Between Coupler Faces||65' 9-1/2"|
|- - Width Over Underframe||10'|
|- - Overall Height - Top Of Rail To Top Of Cooling Fan||15' 7-3/16"|
|- - Radius Single Unit||30 degrees or 193'|
|- - Coupled to Standard 50' Car||17 degrees or 338'|
|- - Two Units Coupled||23 degrees or 250'|
|SECTION 1 - GENERAL DESCRIPTION||101|
|How The Locomotive Operates||104|
|SECTION 2 - ENGINE STARTING AND CAB CONTROLS||201|
|Engine Starting Controls||201|
|Switch And Fuse Panel||203|
|AC Circuit Breaker Panel||208|
|Circuit Breaker Panel||208|
|Engine Control Panel||210|
|Mechanical Interlocks On The Controller||228|
|Air Brake Equipment||230|
|Brake Equipment Positions||234|
|SECTION 3 - OPERATION||301|
|Preparation For Service||301|
|Starting The Diesel Engine||306|
|Trailing Unit Cab Inspection||308|
|Starting Trailing Unit Diesel Engines||310|
|Placing Units On The Line||310|
|Precautions Before Moving Locomotive||311|
|Handling Light Locomotive||311|
|Draining Of Air Reservoirs And Strainers||312|
|Engine Air Box Drain||314|
|Remote Traction Motor Cutout Switch||315|
|Coupling Locomotive Units Together||315|
|Coupling Locomotive Units Together For
Dynamic Braking In Mixed Consists
|Coupling Locomotive To Train||317|
|Pumping Up Air||318|
|Brake Pipe Leakage Test||318|
|Starting A Train||319|
|Accelerating A Train||322|
|Air Braking With Power||323|
|Operating Over Rail Crossing||323|
|Running Through Water||324|
|Wheel Slip Correction||324|
|Wheel Slip Light||325|
|Locomotive Speed Limit||325|
|Mixed Gear Ratio Operation||326|
|Dynamic Brake Wheel Slide Control||330|
|Operation In Helper Service||331|
|Isolating A Unit||331|
|Changing Operating Ends||331|
|Securing Locomotive For Layover||335|
|Towing Locomotive In Train||336|
|Freezing Weather Precautions||337|
|SECTION 4 - TROUBLE SHOOTING||401|
|- - Introduction||401|
|1.||Sand Box||11.||Engine Cranking Motors|
|3.||Control Stand||13.||Dynamic Brake Fans|
|4.||No. 1 Electrical Cabinet||14.||Equipment Rack|
|5.||Inertial Air Filter||15.||Air Compressor|
|6.||Traction Motor Blower||16.||Radiators|
|7.||Generator Blower||17.||Radiator Cooling Fans|
|10.||Main Generator||20.||Electrical Cabinet Air Filter|
The General Motors Model SD40 locomotive, illustrated in Fig. 1-1, is equipped with a turbocharged diesel engine that delivers 3000 horsepower to the main generator for tractive purposes. This power is then distributed to six traction motors, each of which is directly geared to a pair of driving wheels.
The basic locomotive is arranged and equipped so that short hood or cab end is considered the front or forward part of the unit. However, the locomotive operates equally well in either direction, and on special order controls may be arranged so that the long hood end is forward, or dual controls may be provided.
The locomotive may consist of one or more individual units, each of which is a completely functional power plant. When coupled together for multiple unit operatIon, all can be simultaneously controlled from a single set of controls located in the cab of the lead unit. This is accomplished through jumper cables connected between the units.
The general arrangement of equipment used on the SD40 locomotive is shown in Fig. 1-1. Each of the more important equipment components is numbered and identified in this illustration.
On special order, an SD locomotive can be equipped with a steam generator for use in passenger service. The fuel tank is divided into a combination fuel tank and water tank and the gear ratio at the traction motor pinion will generally be suitable for high speed operation. Operating instructions for the SD and SDP models are the same, except for those operations relating to the steam generator. Instructions for operatIon of the steam generator are provided by the manufacturer of that equipment.
1. The fuel pump is driven by an electric motor which, for fuel priming, uses current from the storage battery. Once the engine is started and running, the fuel pump motor uses current directly from the auxiliary generator. The fuel pump transfers fuel from the fuel tank under the locomotive to the engine injectors.
2. The diesel engine is started by means of two series connected 32-volt cranking motors that engage the flywheel ring gear when starting current is applied. The storage battery supplies electric current to engage the starting pinions and rotate the cranking motors.
3. When the engine is running, it supplies mechanical power through shafts and couplings to directly drive three electrical generators, the air compressor, motor and generator blowers, and engine mounted lube oil and cooling water pumps.
4. The auxiliary generator charges the storage battery and supplies low voltage direct current for the control and lighting circuits. The companion alternating current generator furnishes power to the static exciter, various transductors, the three radiator cooling fans, and the inertial separator blower motor. The main traction alternator supplies high voltage AC to a power rectifier assembly which then delivers high voltage DC to the traction motors for locomotive pulling power.
5. By means of the cab controls, low voltage circuits are established to actuate the engine governor and the switchgear in electrical cabinets. This switchgear controls generator excitation and distribution of power.
6. Six traction motors are located under the locomotive. Each traction motor is directly geared to an axle and pair of driving wheels. These motors are located in two trucks which support the locomotive weight and distribute it to the driving wheels.
7. The throttle electrically controls speed and power by actuating a governor mounted on the engine and by tying the response of the locomotive power control system to throttle position. The main generator converts the engine's mechanical power to electrical power, which is then distributed to the traction motors through circuits established by the various switchgear components in the electrical cabinet.
8. At locomotive start the throttle controls electrical devices that provide rapid power response at a level consistent with smoothly controlled starting.
9. During heavy-drag low-speed operation, as well as at moderate and high operating speeds, a load regulator operates to maintain power output at the specific level called for by throttle position. This prevents the engine from being overloaded or underloaded.
10. The air compressor supplies, to the reservoirs, air under pressure used primarily for the air brakes. The air brakes are controlled by the operator through suitable equipment in the cab.
11. Except for manual operation of the cab controls, the locomotive operation is completely automatic. Various alarms and safety devices will alert the operator should any operating difficulties occur.
|1.||Engine Control Panel||6.||Cab Heater|
|2.||Circuit Breaker Panel||7.||Locomotive Controller|
|3.||Air Brake Controls||8.||Air Horn Lever|
|4.||Switch And Fuse Panel||9.||Speed Recorder|
|5.||Safety Control Pedal||10.||GRD/FAULT Reset Button|
|11.||Attendant Call Button|
A switch for fuel priming and engine cranking is located at the equipment rack in the engineroom. All other basic control equipment used during locomotive operation is at four locations within the cab, Fig. 2-0.
1. The Switch And Fuse Panel
2. Circuit Breaker Panel
3. The Engine Control Panel
4. The Locomotive Control Stand
This switch, located on the equipment rack in the engineroom, is a three-position rotary switch used for fuel priming and engine starting. Before attempting to start the diesel engine, the isolation switch in the locomotive cab must be placed in the START position. The rotary switch must then be placed in the FUEL PRIME position and held there for 10 to 15 onds to operate the fuel pump. The layshaft lever must then be positioned and the rotary switch placed in the ENGINE START position and held (for no longer than 20 seconds) until the engine starts.
This engine mounted hand operated lever operates the injector racks. It is used to position the injector racks during engine cranking, thereby providing an immediate supply of fuel to the cylinders.
The low water detector will often trip during engine starting, especially when the engine is cold or when the water tank pressure cap has been removed to add water. The detector should be reset as soon as the engine starts and is idling, or else the engine will shut down after a time delay established by the governor.
Check the low water reset pushbutton after every engine start.
NOTE: The reset buttons on some detectors will not latch in when the engine is shut down. If such a condition is encountered, reset the device after engine start.
The panel shown in Fig. 2-2 is located within the electrical cabinet that forms the rear wall of the locomotive cab. Its position is directly below the engine control panel which is located in the upper left hand corner of the electrical cabinet.
As a modification when requested by the railroad, provision is made at the switch and fuse panel for connection of an external source of DC power to charge the locomotive battery. The battery charging fuse may be provided to protect the charging circuit.
|1.||High Voltage Control Isolation Switch||8.||Main Battery Switch|
|2.||D14 Alternator Field Fuse||9.||Starting Fuse|
|3.||Ground Relay Cutout Switch||10.||Auxiliary Generator Fuse|
|4.||Auxiliary Generator Field Fuse||11.||Generator Field Circuit Breaker|
|5.||Fuse Test Light||*12.||Battery Charging Receptacle|
|6.||Fuse Test Switch||13.||AC Control Circuit Breaker|
|7.||Fuse Test Terminals||14.||Filter Blower Motor Circuit Breaker|
The D14 alternator receives its excitation through a pair of slip rings connected to the low voltage DC auxiliary generator output. To protect these windings, a 60-ampere fuse is provided in the excitation circuit. This fuse must be good and in place at all times during locomotive operation.
In the event that the fuse is blown, D14 alternator excitation and resulting power output will cease, setting off the no power alarm, and reducing the engine speed to idle.
The field excitation circuit of the auxiliary generator is protected by a 30-ampere fuse. This fuse must be good and in place at all times during locomotive operation.
In the event that this fuse is burned out, it stops auxiliary generator output to the low voltage system and also stops fuel pump operation. An alternator failure (no power no battery charge) alarm would then occur. The engine will go to idle speed and then stop from lack of fuel.
The purpose of the ground relay cutout switch is to eliminate the ground protective relay from the locomotive circuits during certain shop maintenance inspections. It MUST ALWAYS BE KEPT CLOSED in normal operation, otherwise the protection offered by the ground relay will be nullified and possible serious equipment damage could occur. It may be opened, however, in the event of extreme emergency upon receipt of definite instruction to that effect from a responsible officer of the railroad.
It is always advisable to test fuses before installing them in their circuits. Always isolate the circuits in question by opening their switches before changing or replacing fuses.
This fuse connects the auxiliary generator to the low voltage system. It protects against excessive current demands. A 150 ampere fuse is installed for the basic auxiliary generator and a 250 ampere fuse is installed for the heavy duty generator. In the event that the fuse is burned out, it stops auxiliary generator output to the low voltage system and also stops fuel pump operation. An alternator failure (no power) alarm would then occur. The engine will go to idle speed and then stop from lack of fuel.
CAUTION: The 250 ampere fuse is of the same physical size as the starting 400 ampere fuse. Do not interchange the fuses.
The starting fuse is in use only during the period that diesel engine is actually being started. At this time, the ttery current flows through the fuse and starting contactor to the cranking motors.
Although this fuse should be in good condition and always left in place, it has no effect on locomotive operation other than for engine starting. A defective fuse can be detected when attempting to start the engine, since at that time (even though the starting contactors close) the cranking circuit is open.
The large double-pole single-throw knife switch at the lower portion of the fuse panel is the main battery switch. It is used to connect the battery to the locomotive low voltage system and should be kept closed at all times during operation.
This switch may be opened during certain shop maintenance procedures and in instances where the engine is shut down and the locomotive taken out of service for an extended layover. This will prevent the battery rn from being discharged in the event the lights or other low voltage devices are inadvertently left operating during the layover. Particular attention should be given when a notation at the switch cautions against opening •th e switch immediately after engine shutdown. At ast 35 minutes should be allowed following engine shutdown before this switch is opened after load operation at or above throttle position No. 3. That is, cooldown time for the turbocharger bearings can be considered to accumulate below throttle position No. 3 even though the 35 minute timing of the turbocharger auxiliary lube oil pump begins at engine shutdown.
When the locomotive is equipped with a steam generator for use in passenger service, this fuse is used to protect the circuits to the steam generator.
The AR 10 generator receives its excitation through a pair of slip rings connected to the D14 alternator output through a controlled rectifier. The circuit breaker is provided to protect the controlled rectifier and the generator field windings.
The D14 alternator is the power supply for various excitation and wheel slip control devices. The breaker is employed to protect the circuitry. The No AC Voltage relay NVR is also located in this circuit. If the breaker trips during locomotive operation, a NO POWER alarm will be given.
A blower is used to evacuate dirty air from the central air compartment inertial filters. This breaker is provided to protect the blower motor circuit.
This panel is located above and forward of the switch and fuse panel, but behind the same cabinet door. It contains the following equipment.
This circuit breaker must be in the ON position before locomotive operation is possible. It sets up the fuel pump and control circuits for engine starting. Once the engine is running, power is supplied through this breaker from the auxiliary generator to maintain operating control.
his circuit breaker must be ON to supply power for the individual switches provided for platform, engine room, and identification lights.
This circuit breaker must be in the ON position before operation of the locomotive is possible. During operation it establishes "local" power from the auxiliary generator to operate heavy duty switchgear and various control devices.
This circuit breaker must be in the ON position to start the engine and operate the turbocharger auxiliary lube oil pump. It must remain in the ON position to provide auxiliary lubrication to the turbocharger at engine start and after the engine is shut down. A guard is provided over this breaker switch to prevent accidental movement to the OFF position.
These breakers can include one each for the headlight, automatic train control, overspeed switch, cab heater, radio, signal light, and field loop if applicable. The circuit breakers should be placed in the ON position to obtain the desired operation.
The fuel pump circuit breaker must be ON for normal operation.
These switches are provided for isolation of control circuits that are connected across the output of the main generator. They enable testing and calibration of circuits through the use of a controlled voltage from an MG set.
WARNING: High voltage is present at the switches during locomotive operation.
The engine control panel, Fig. 2-3, is located at the upper left hand corner of the electrical cabinet that forms the rear wall of the cab. This panel contains various switches and alarm lights, along with a battery charging meter or light. Since all of these items will be used at one time or another during operation, a brief description of their individual functions is provided.
Note that an alarm bell accompanies alarm signal light indications. The bell will ring in all units of a locomotive consist, but the light will come on only in the affected unit.
The traction motor cutout switch operates to cut out a defective motor along with an electrically related motor. This permits operation with four motors. The power control system automatically limits power to prevent overloading the operative motors.
The high voltage ground light indicates an electrical path to ground caused by insulation failure, the presence of water, or an electrical arc. When the light is on, the locomotive will not develop power and the engine will remain at idle. The light can be put out by pressing the H.V. Grd. reset pushbutton. It is not necessary to isolate the unit, nor is it necessary to have the throttle in idle while pressing the button.
When the high voltage ground light comes on for the third time after resetting, isolate the affected unit.
CAUTION: Always report ground relay light indications to proper maintenance personnel.
An electrical system relates generator excitation to main generator output and acts to hold power at an acceptable level during various temporary conditions of locomotive operation. Should this sytem lose calibration or somehow fail, there would be no protection against abnormally high generator current.
An excitation limit relay senses high generator field current and acts to modulate it. When this action occurs, generator current and voltage are held to acceptable values.
The excitation limit condition is normally temporary and no action is required by the operator; however, if the condition persists, the green excitation limit light comes on, a timing relay drops generator excitation and locks in the excitation limit circuit.
This light will come on as soon as the main battery switch and turbo lube pump circuit breaker are closed. It indicates that the turbocharger auxiliary lube oil pump is supplying lube oil to the turbocharger. It will remain on for approximately 35 minutes after the main battery switch is closed. When the fuel prime engine start switch is operated after the 35 minute period, the time cycle is again re-established and the light remains on for another 35 minutes.
The light will also come on and remain on for approximately 35 minutes after the engine is stopped. It provides an indication that the auxiliary lube oil pump is supplying oil to cool the turbocharger bearings.
This light will come on and the alarm bell will ring any time that the no AC voltage relay NVR opens with the isolation switch in RUN position and the ER switch in ON position. This will occur if the auxiliary generator fails to excite the D14 alternator, or if the D14 fails for any reason.
The hot engine alarm light (red) operates in conjunction with the alarm bell to warn the operator that the engine cooling water has reached an excessive temperature.
A mechanism to detect low engine lubricating oil pressure or high suction is built into the engine governor. This mechanism is actuated by true oil pressure failure or by dumping oil from the engine oil line leading to the governor. In either event a small button will pop out of the governor body, indicating that the mechanism has tripped the low oil alarm switch. The amber light on the engine control panel will come on to indicate that the low oil mechanism has tripped.
When a Crankcase (Oil Pan) Pressure/Low Water/Low Oil alarm occurs it is necessary to determine whether the crankcase pressure - low water detector has tripped to dump engine oil from the line leading to the governor, or whether a true oil failure has occurred. This can be determined by checking the crankcase pressure - low water detecting device, Fig. 3-2, for protruding reset buttons. A protruding upper button indicates excessive oil pan pressure; a protruding lower button indicates low water.
|WARNING:||When it is determined that the crankcase pressure detector has tripped, make no further engine room inspections. Do not attempt to restart the engine, Isolate the unit and drain the cooling system in accordance with railroad regulations.|
If neither the crankcase pressure nor the low water pressure detector has tripped, and engine oil level is satisfactory with cooling water level marginal and a hot engine condition apparent, allow engine to cool before restarting.
Switches are included in circuits for various lights and devices on the locomotive. The switches are closed as desired to operate the class lights, the number lights, the engine room lights, and the platform lights.
On units so equipped, when this switch is placed in the CUTOUT position, the individual unit will not operate in dynamic braking. It will however, continue to operate normally under power. The switch can be used to limit the number of units in a consist that will operate in dynamic braking, or it may be used to cutout a unit that is defective in dynamic braking, yet allow it to operate under power.
The twin sealed-beam front and rear headlights are controlled by the front and rear headlight switches on the locomotive control panel. A dimming switch is mounted on the right side of the controller. Before these switches will function, the 30-ampere headlight circuit breaker must be placed ON.
On locomotives equipped for multiple unit operation, a remote headlight control switch is mounted on the engine control panel. This remote headlight control switch provides for operation of the rear unit headlight from the lead unit. The switch positions are set on each unit as follows:
1.On Lead Unit
If only a single locomotive unit is being used, place the switch in SINGLE UNIT position.
In multiple unit service, if trailing units are coupled to the No. 2 or long hood end of the lead unit, place the switch in the CONTROLLING — COUPLED AT LONG HOOD END position.
In multiple unit service, if trailing units are coupled to the No. 1 or short hood end of the lead unit, place switch in CONTROLLING — COUPLED AT SHORT HOOD END position.
2. On Intermediate Units
On units operating in between other units in a multiple unit consist, place the switch in the SINGLE UNIT position.
3. On Trailing Units
The last unit in a multiple unit consist should have the headlight control switch placed in the CONTROLLED - COUPLED AT EITHER END position.
The unit selector switch is used only on locomotives equipped with dynamic brakes and a field loop circuit. Its purpose is to adjust circuit resistance for uniform dynamic brake operation.
This switch should be set to the No. 1, 2, 3, or 4 position, depending on the number of locomotive units physically and electrically connected together. The switch position should not be changed for any reason other than to correspond to a change in number of units being operated. For example, it should not be changed if one of the units is isolated or shut down while it remains in the locomotive consist.
This switch position is of importance only in the lead or controlling locomotive unit during operation in dynamic braking. It has no function in intermediate or trailing units.
NOTE: Switch position may be changed only while the throttle is in IDLE or locomotive is at rest. It should never be moved while operating in dynamic braking.
The fuel prime/engine start switch is located on the equipment rack in the engineroom, Fig. 2-1. This location allows the operator to manipulate the engine layshaft lever during engine cranking, thereby facilitating faster starting with less drain on the locomotive battery.
The diesel engine will stop whenever the engine stop pushbutton is pressed. The reaction to the pushbutton is immediate, it need not be held in until the engine stops.
The isolation switch has two positions, one labeled START/STOP/ISOLATE, the other labeled RUN. The functions of these two positions are as follows:
1. START/STOP/ISOLATE Position
The isolation switch is placed in this position whenever the diesel engine is to be started. The start switch is effective only when the isolation switch is in this position.
The START position is also used to isolate the unit, and when isolated the unit will not develop power or respond to the controls. In this event the engine will run at idle speed regardless of throttle position. This position will also silence the alarm bell in the event of a no power or low lube oil alarm. It will not, however, stop the alarm in the event of a hot engine.
If the locomotive is equipped with remote traction motor cutout switch, the isolation switch must be placed in the ISOLATE position before the cutout switch can be operated.
2. RUN Position
After the engine has been started, the unit can be placed "on the line" by moving the isolation switch to the RUN position. The unit will then respond to control and will develop power in normal operation.
The locomotive controller is shown in Fig. 2-4. It contains the switches, gauges, and operating levers used by the operator during operation of the locomotive. The individual components of the controller are described, together with their functions, in the following paragraphs.
The ground relay detects high voltage grounds during operation under power. When it trips, the alarm bells ring in all units of a consist. On the unit affected, generator excitation is lost, the diesel engine goes to idle speed, and the high voltage ground light on the engine control panel comes on.
To reset the high voltage ground relay and restore locomotive power, wait 10 seconds and press the high voltage ground reset pushbutton on the locomotive control stand. It is not necessary to isolate the Unit nor is it necessary to place the throttle in idle position before pressing the reset button unless the locomotive is at a standstill.
|1.||Air Gauges||8.||Reverse Lever|
|2.||Load Current Indicating Meter||9.||Ground Reset Pushbutton|
|10.||Attendant Call Pushbutton|
|3.||Indicating Lights||11.||Bell Pushbutton|
|4.||Operating Switches||12.||Sanding Lever|
|5.||Headlight Dimming Switch||13.||Lead Truck Sanding Switch|
|6.||Selector Lever (Optional Extra)||14.||Dynamic Brake Circuit Breaker|
|7.||Throttle Lever||15.||Air Horn Lever|
Repeated resetting of the high voltage ground relay is permissible, but instructions as issued by the railroad regarding repeated resetting must be followed. However, in the absence of definite instructions to the E contrary, isolate a unit when the ground relay light comes on for the third time after resetting.
CAUTION: Always report high voltage ground relay light indications to proper maintenance personnel.
Air gauges to indicate main reservoir air pressure as well as various pressures concerned with the air brakes are prominently located along the top of the controller.
The locomotive pulling force is indicated by the load indicating meter located at the upper portion of the controller. This meter is graduated to read amperes of electrical current, with 1500 being the maximum reading on the scale. On special order the meter may be color coded to indicate operating time limits at various meter pointer positions.
The meter is connected so as to indicate the current flowing through the No. 2 traction motor. Since the amperage is the same in all motors, each motor will carry the amount shown on the meter.
On locomotives equipped with dynamic brakes, the load current indicating meter indicates braking effort during operation of dynamic brakes. Since the dynamic brake regulator controls maximum braking current, the meter should seldom if ever indicate more than 700 amperes, which is the rating of the dynamic braking resistor grids.
NOTE: The IDAC wheel slip control system functions to correct slips by instantaneous reduction of power in small increments and by application of sand. The cumulative effect of a large number of power reductions in rapid succession is to cause the locomotive to maintain power at a level where adhesion can be maintained. Do not misinterpret this loss of power as a defect in the control system.
Four or more indicating lights are installed to provide a visual warning of operating difficulties. The four basic lights are wheel slip, PCS open, brake warning, and sand. The functions of these lights are as follows:
1. Wheel slip light
Intermittent flashing of the wheel slip light indicates that the wheel slip control system is doing its job and is correcting the slips. The throttle and locomotive power should not be reduced unless severe lurching threatens to break the train.
Note that minor slips or wheel creep will not activate the wheel slip light, but automatic sanding may take place along with regulation of power to the wheels. Do not misinterpret this power control as loss of power due to a fault.
WARNING: A wheel slip light flashing slowly and persistently or burning continuously may indicate a pair of sliding wheels or circuit difficulty. Stop the locomotive and make a careful inspection to ascertain that there are no locked sliding wheels.
2. PCS OPEN Light
The PCS or pneumatic control switch functions to automatically reduce locomotive power in the event that an emergency or safety control air brake application occurs. It does so by reducing the speed of ALL engines to idle.
CAUTION: The engine run switch should be in the OFF position in all trailing units, or (depending on the type and position of locomotives in the consist) it is possible that the PCS switch of the lead unit will not act to reduce engine speeds to idle.
When the switch is tripped the PCS OPEN indicating light on the controller will come on. This light is extinguished and locomotive power restored by resetting the PCS switch. This occurs automatically, provided that:
a. Control of the air brake is recovered.
b. The throttle is returned to IDLE position.
3. Brake Warning
A brake warning light is installed on units equipped with dynamic brakes and functions in conjunction with a brake warning relay. The purU pose of the relay and light is to indicate excessive braking current when operating in dynamic braking.
Due to the use of an automatic brake limiting regulator, the warning light should seldom if ever come on and then only momentarily. Correction for excessive current generally occurs automatically and quite rapidly.
In the event that the brake warning light comes on and does not go out quickly, the braking strength should be immediately reduced to prevent possible equipment damage. Excessive braking strength can be reduced by moving the throttle toward idle position.
This light comes on to indicate that the SANDING No. 1 TRUCK switch is closed and that sand is being applied to the No. 1 axle. The light is not affected by the manual, emergency, or wheel slip sanding circuits.
A group of switches is located along the front face of the controller, each identified by a name plate indicating switch function. The switches are in the ON position when moved upward.
Before the engine is to be started, the control and fuel pump switch must be placed ON. To obtain power from the locomotive, the generator field switch must be ON. To obtain control of engine speed, the engine run switch must be ON. These three important switches are grouped at the right side of the controller. They must be placed in the OFF position on controllers of trailing units.
Other switches control sanding, attendant call, and various lights. They are placed on as needed.
A five position switch is located on the controller to the right of the throttle. In one position it provides for dim headlights on both ends of the locomotive. In the other four positions it provides for a bright or medium headlight at either the front or the rear of the locomotive.
For this switch to function, the two headlight switches on the controller as well as the headlight circuit breaker on the switch and fuse panel must be placed ON.
The controller is equipped with a selector lever, Fig. 2-5, in instances where the locomotive unit is equipped with dynamic brakes or when it is necessary to manually control transition on trailing units not equipped for automatic transition. On units so equipped, this lever serves to establish proper circuits for either of these functions. The position of the lever is indicated in the lower of the two illuminated windows located at the upper left corner of the controller front panel. The lever is spring loaded so that movement all the way in one direction will index the selector cam one notch only in that direction. It must be allowed to return to center position before indexing again in either direction. When the selector lever is indexed to the B or braking position, the dynamic braking electro-magnetic contactors are energized. In this position the throttle lever moves freely (without notching) to control a braking rheostat and dynamic braking strength.
When the lever is moved to the center or OFF position, all circuits are open. This position is used for locking the controller in unattended or trailing units.
For operation under power, the lever would be inxed to the No. 1 position. Succeeding positions such as Nos. 2, 3, and 4 would be used only when it is necessary to cause transition on any nonautomatic trailing units operating in the locomotive consist.
The throttle lever actuates switches within the controller to establish low voltage electrical circuits to the rn engine governor for purposes of controlling engine speed. The throttle has ten positions namely, STOP, IDLE and running speeds 1 through 8 as shown in Fig. 2-6. Each of these positions is shown in the illuminated indicator in the upper left hand corner of the controller.
To stop all engines, the throttle lever is pulled out away from the controller and then moved one step beyond IDLE to the STOP position. The IDLE position is as far forward as the throttle lever can be moved without pulling it away from the controller.
Each running notch on the throttle increases locomotive power by increasing generator excitation or engine speed or both. At time of locomotive start each notch provides a fixed and immediate level of generator excitation. This level brings about an immediate and fixed response to throttle position during starting.
When operating in dynamic braking (selector lever in "B") the throttle lever serves as a braking handle. It moves freely without notching to control dynamic braking.
The reverse lever, Fig. 2-7, has three positions; forward, neutral and reverse. The direction in which the locomotive moves is controlled by movement of this lever to the forward or reverse position. With the lever in neutral, no power will be developed if the throttle is opened. The reverse lever should be moved ONLY when the locomotive is standing still.
The reverse lever can be removed from the controller only when the lever is in neutral position, the throttle is in IDLE and the selector lever is in OFF. Removal of the reverse lever locks the operating controls in the controller. The reverse lever should be removed from the controllers in all but the lead unit of a multiple unit locomotive consist.
When the bell ringer is operated, compressed air is directed to the locomotive warning bell operator.
1. SANDING NO. 1 TRUCK Toggle Switch
The signal from this switch is not trainlined. The switch provides sand to only the number 1 axle of the lead unit of a consist. This method of sanding dresses the rail and is adequate for most conditions.
2. SAND Lever Switch
When the sanding switch lever is operated, electrical energy is directed through interlocks of reverser switchgear to operate either the forward or reverse sanding magnet valves in all units of a consist. The basic switch may be operated in any direction for correct sanding and it is non-latching. A directional sanding switch may be provided as an optional extra, and the switch may be latching if requested by the railroad.
Electrically controlled sanding is the basic system used but since the locomotive may be operated in multiple with older units that are equipped only for pneumatic control of sanding, trainlined pneumatic control of sanding may be provided as an optional extra in addition to electrical control. In such cases, trainlined actuating pipes must be connected between units.
The levers on the controller are interlocked so that:
Where positions 2, 3, and 4 are incorporated in the selector for manual transition, the handle may be moved to these positions if the reverse lever is in forward or reverse, and with the throttle in any position. Permissible movement of the throttle and reverse levers with the selector in 2, 3, or 4 is the same as with the selector in 1.
Basic locomotives are equipped with the type 26L air brakes. Since type 26L is standard equipment, only that type of air brake will be discussed in this manual.
The 26L air brake control equipment is located to the left of the controller. As shown in Fig. 2-8, this equipment consists of an automatic brake, indeU pendent brake, multiple unit valve (when MU control is installed), cutoff valve and a trainline air pressure adjustment device. The dead engine feature, a part of the 26L equipment, is shown in Fig. 2-9. The cock is accessible from outside the locomotive through side doors provided. The pressure regulator is set at the maintenance point and is not to be set by the operator.
The automatic brake valve handle may be placed in any of six operating positions as shown in Fig. 2-10.
The independent air brake handle is located directly below the automatic brake handle. It has two posiItions; namely, RELEASE and FULL APPLICATION. Between these two positions is the application zone. Since this is a self-lapping brake, it automatically laps off the flow of air and maintains brake cylinder pressure corresponding to the position of the handle in the application zone.
|Fig. 2-10 - Automatic Brake Handle Positions||Fig. 2-11 - Independent Brake Handle Positions|
Depression of the independent brake valve handle when in the RELEASE position causes release of any automatic brake application existing on the locomotive.
The multiple unit (MU-2) valve is located on the left hand side of the air brake stand, as shown in Fig. 2-8. Its purpose is to pilot the F1 selector valve which is a device that enables the air brake equipment of one locomotive unit to be controlled by that of another unit.
The basic MU-2 valve has three positions which are:
The valve is positioned by pushing in and turning to e desired setting.
*Whenever the MU-2 valve is in the TRAIL 6 or 26 position, and if actuating trainline is not used, then the actuating end connection cutout cock must be opened to atmosphere. This is necessary to prevent the inadvertent loss of air brakes due to possible pressure build-up in the actuating line.
The cut-off valve is located on the automatic brake valve housing directly beneath the automatic brake valve handle. This valve has the following three positions:
The trainline air pressure adjusting knob is located behind the automatic brake valve at the upper portion of the brake stand. It is shown in Fig. 2-8.
When operating locomotives equipped with 26L air brakes, the brake equipment should be positioned according to the information given in Fig. 2-12.
This section of the manual covers recommended procedures for operation of the locomotive. The procedures are briefly outlined and do not contain detailed explanations of equipment location or function.
The information in this section is arranged in sequence, commencing with inspections in preparation for service, and with instructions for starting the engine, handling a light locomotive, coupling to train, and routine operating phases. The various operating situations and special features such as dynamic braking are also covered.
Check locomotive exterior and running gear for:
On the lead or control unit, the control locations described in Section 2 should be checked and the equipment positioned for operation as follows:
CAUTION: The electrical cabinet is pressurized with filtered air. Cabinet doors must be securely closed during locomotive operation.
On locomotives equipped with remote panel mounted traction motor cutout switch, the panel instructions adjacent to the switch must be followed exactly when a traction motor is to be cut out. The cutout switch can not be turned unless the unit is isolated and the local control circuit breaker is closed.
The controller switches and operating levers should be positioned as follows:
The engine can be readily inspected by opening the access doors along the sides of the long hood end of the locomotive.
The engine should be inspected before as well as after starting. After inspection and engine start, all engine room doors should be closed and latched securely, as engine room is pressurized during operation.
After the preceding inspections have been completed, the diesel engine may be started. Starting controls are located at the accessory end of the engine in the area of the equipment rack. See Fig. 2-1. Perform the following:
NOTE: If engine temperature is 40 degrees F. or less, preheat the engine before attempting to start.
CAUTION: Make certain that the starting fuse is the correct rating (400 amperes).
Switches, circuit breakers, and control equipment located in the cab of a trailing unit should be checked for proper positioning as follows:
CAUTION:Thecontrol circuit breaker must be on in trailing units.
The controller switches and operating levers should be positioned as follows:
Engines in trailing units are started in the same manner as the engine in the lead unit.
After the diesel engines are started and inspected, units may be placed on the line as desired by placing the isolation switch on the engine control panel in the cab in the RUN position. If the consist is at a standstill, be certain that the throttle lever in all units is in the idle position before placing any unit on the line.
The following points should be carefully checked before attempting to move the locomotive under its own power:
1. MAKE SURE THAT MAIN RESERVOIR AIR PRESSURE IS NORMAL (approximately 130-140 pounds).
This is very important, since the locomotive is equipped with electro-magnetic switchgear which will function in response to control and permit operation without air pressure for brakes.
2. Check for proper application and release of air brakes.
3. Release hand brake and remove any blocking under the wheels.
CAUTION: Engine should not be operated above throttle position No. 3 until water temperature is greater than 130 F.
With the engine started and placed "on-the-line" and the preceding inspections and precautions completed, the locomotive is handled as follows:
1. Place the engine run switch and generator field switch in ON (up) position.
2. Place headlight and other lights ON as needed.
3. Insert reverse lever and move it to the desired direction of travel, either forward or reverse.
4. Place selector lever in No. 1 position (if so equipped).
5. Depress safety control foot pedal (if so equipped).
6. Release air brakes.
7. Open throttle to Run 1, 2, or 3 as needed to move locomotive at desired speed.
NOTE: Locomotive response to throttle movement is almost immediate. There is little delay in power buildup.
8. Throttle should be in IDLE before coming to a dead stop.
9. Reverse lever should be moved to change direction of travel only when locomotive is completely stopped.
The air reservoirs and air strainers or filters should be drained at least once each day whether or not equipment is provided with automatic drain valves. Draining should be done at the time of crew change until a definite schedule is established by the railroad.
Drain valves should be operated at the following locations:
|Fig. 3-4 - Main And Auxiliary Main Reservoirs Centrifugal Filters And Filter Drains|
1. Momentarily operate the manual override lever on auxiliary main reservoir centrifugal filter, 2, Fig. 3-3 and Fig. 3-4.
NOTE: The solenoid drain valve plunger is inoperative when the drain valve solenoid is energized.
2. Momentarily operate the manual override lever on the main reservoir centrifugal filter, 1, Fig. 3-3 and Fig. 3-4.
3. Momentarily open the main reservoir drain valves, 3, Fig. 3-3.
4. Press up on the pushbutton at the base of the compressor control strainer drain, 4, Fig. 3-3 and Fig. 3-5.
A metal casting mounted on the front end plate of the engine connects drain pipes from each side of the airbox to a common drain pipe. Pressures in opposition at the casting restrict airflow to a permissible amount, yet allow elimination of airbox contaminants. The system is completely automatic and requires no attention by the locomotive operator.
On locomotives equipped with remote panel mounted traction motor cutout switches, the panel instructions adjacent to the switch must be followed exactly when a traction motor is to be cut out. The cutout switch can not be turned unless the unit is isolated and the local control circuit breaker is closed.
When coupling units together for multiple unit operation, the procedure below should be followed:
1. Couple and stretch units to ensure couplers are locked.
2. Install control cable between units; also dynamic braking cables, if so equipped, and if operation with field loop control of dynamic brakes is desired.
NOTE: If the consist is made up with older units that are equipped for only pneumatic control of sanding, connect actuating pipes between all units in the consist.
3. Attach platform safety chains between units.
4. Perform ground, engineroom, and engine inspections as outlined in preceding articles.
5. Position cab controls for trailing unit operation as outlined in preceding articles.
The SD40 locomotive, when equipped with basic dynamic brakes, makes use of electrical potential from the brake control rheostat to control braking strength by controlling excitation of the main generator field. This electrical potential is impressed upon a trainlined wire to control dynamic braking strength of all units in a consist equipped with potential line brake control. However, the total braking effort of a multi-unit consist can become quite high. Carefully observe railroad rules regarding multiple unit dynamic braking in critical service.
If the SD40 is to be used with older locomotives that are not equipped with potential line brake control, equipment for field loop control of dynamic brakes may be provided in one of two forms.
1. To lead only with field loop control of dynamic brakes.
2. To lead or trail with field loop control of dynamic brakes.
If the unit is equipped to lead or trail in field loop, it is provided with an operation selector switch located in the electrical cabinet. Units equipped to lead only in field loop are not provided with an operation selector switch. Such units must be in the lead if field loop control of dynamic braking is to be used.
Any instructions regarding mixed consist dynamic braking must consider the equipment provided on the units involved, the position of the various units in the consist, and individual railroad policy and rules. However, the following general suggestions may be helpful in cases where doubt regarding braking arrangements exists. These suggestions should not be followed if they conflict with railroad rules.
1. If all units in a mixed consist are equipped with potential line control of dynamic brakes, do not connect the field loop cables, If the units are equipped with an operation selector switch, place all such switches in the POTENTIAL position.
2. If one or more units in a mixed consist are equipped only for field loop control of dynamic braking, connect all units in the field loop, and place the operation selector switches on all units in the FIELD LOOP position.
Locomotive should be coupled to train using the same care taken when coupling units together. After coupling, make the following checks:
1. Test to see that couplers are locked by stretching connection.
2. Connect air brake hoses.
3. Slowly open air valves on locomotive and train to cut in brakes.
4. Pump up air if necessary, using the following procedure.
After cutting in air brakes on train, note the reaction of the main reservoir air gauge. If pressure falls below trainline pressure, pump up air as follows:
1. Place generator field switch in OFF (down) posifion.
2. Move reverse lever to neutral position.
3. Open throttle as needed to speed up engine and I thus increase air compressor output.
NOTE: Throttle may be advanced to RUN 4 if necessary. Engine should not, however, be run unloaded (as in pumping air) at speeds beyond throttle No.4 position.
Prior to operating the 26L brake equipment, a leakage test must be performed. This is accomplished in the following manner.
1. The cutoff valve is positioned in either FRGT or PASS, depending on the equipment make up of the train.
2. Move the automatic brake valve handle gradually into service position until the equalizing reservoir gauge indicates that a 15 psi reduction has been made.
3. Without any further movement of the automatic brake valve handle, observe the brake pipe gauge until this pressure has dropped 15 psi and exhaust has stopped blowing.
4. At this moment turn the cutoff valve to CUT OFF position. This cuts out the maintaining function of the brake valve.
5. From the instant the cutoff valve is turned to CUT OFF position, the brake pipe gauge should be observed and any possible drop in brake pipe pressure should be timed for one minute. Brake pipe leakage must not exceed the rate established by railroad rules.
6. After checking trainline leakage for one minute and the results are observed to be within required limits, return the cutoff indicator to the required position (FRGT or PASS) and proceed to reduce the equalizing gauge pressure until the pressure is the same as brake pipe gauge pressure. This is accomplished by moving the automatic brake valve handle gradually to the right until a full service application has been obtained.
7. After pipe leakage test has been completed, return the automatic brake valve handle to RELEASE position.
The method to be used in starting a train depends upon many factors such as, the type of locomotive being used; the type, weight and length of the train and amount of slack in the train; as well as the weather, grade and track conditions. Since all of these factors are variable, specific train starting instructions cannot be provided and it will therefore be up to the operator to use good judgment in properly applying the power to suit requirements. There are, however, certain general considerations that should be observed. hey are discussed in the following paragraphs.
A basic characteristic of the diesel locomotive is its HIGH STARTING TRACTIVE EFFORT, which makes it imperative that the air brakes be completely released before any attempt is made to start a train. On an average 100 car freight train having uniformly distributed leakage, it may take 10 minutes or more to completely release the brakes after a reduction has m been made. It is therefore important that sufficient time be allowed after stopping, or otherwise applying brakes, to allow them to be fully released before attempting to start the train.
The locomotive possesses sufficiently high tractive effort to enable it to start most trains without taking m slack. The practice of taking slack indiscriminately should thus be avoided. There will, however, be instances in which it is advisable (and sometimes necessary) to take slack in starting a train. Care should be m taken in such cases to prevent excessive locomotive acceleration which will- cause undue shock to draft gear and couplers, and lading.
Proper throttle handling is important when starting trains, since it has a direct bearing on the power being I developed. As the throttle is advanced, power increase occurs almost immediately, and power applied is at a value dependent upon throttle position. It is therefore advisable to advance the throttle one notch at a time when starting a train. A train should be started in as low a throttle position as possible, thus keeping the speed of the locomotive at a minimum until all slack has been removed and the train completely stretched. Sometimes it is advisable to reduce the throttle a notch or two at the moment the locomotive begins to move in order to prevent stretching slack too quickly or to avoid slipping.
When ready to start, the following general procedure is recommended:
1. Place the selector lever (if used) in the No. 1 position.
2. Move reverse lever to the desired direction, either forward or reverse.
3. Place engine run and generator field switches in the ON (up) position.
4. Release both automatic and independent air brakes.
5. Open the throttle one notch every few seconds as follows:
a. To run 1 - The engine will quickly load, but the loading will stop at a specific low value. This may be noted on the load indicating meter. At an easy starting place the locomotive may start the train.
NOTE: The design of the locomotive power control system makes it generally unnecessary to apply locomotive independent brakes or to manipulate the throttle between run 1 and idle during starting.
b. To run 2, 3, or higher (experience and the demands of the schedule will determine this) until the locomotive moves.
6. Reduce throttle one or more notches if acceleration is too rapid.
7. After the train is stretched, advance throttle as desired.
NOTE: When operating at full throttle to climb a hill I or to accelerate, the IDAC wheel slip control system reacts so rapidly to correct minor slips If by means of power reduction and sanding that the wheel slip light seldom comes on to indicate severe slips. This wheel slip corrective action is often seen at the load current indicating meter as a steady reduction of load current below that which is normally expected at full throttle for a given speed. Do not misinterpret this power reduction as a fault. It is merely the wheel sup control system doing its job and maintaining power at a level within the adhesion conditions established by track and grade.
After the train has been started, the throttle can be advanced as rapidly as desired to accelerate the train. The speed with which the throttle is advanced depends upon demands of the schedule and the type of locomotive and train involved. In general, however, advancing the throttle one notch at a time is desired to prevent slipping.
The load indicating meter provides the best guide for throttle handling when accelerating a train. By observing this meter it will be noted that the pointer moves toward the right (increased amperage) as the throttle is advanced. As soon as the increased power is absorbed, the meter pointer begins moving toward the left. At that time, the throttle may again be advanced. Thus for maximum acceleration without slipping, the throttle should be advanced one notch each time the meter pointer begins moving toward the left until full power is reached in throttle position 8.
The method of handling the air brake equipment is left to the discretion of the individual railroad. However, when braking with power, it must be remembered that for any given throttle position, the draw bar pull rapidly increases as the train speed decreases. This pull might become great enough to part the train unless the throttle is reduced as the train speed decreases. Since the pull of the locomotive is indicated by the amperage on the load meter, the operator can maintain a constant pull on the train during a slow down, by keeping a steady amperage on the load meter. This is aëcomplished by reducing the throttle a notch whenever the amperage starts to increase. It is recommended that the independent brakes be kept fully released during power braking. The throttle MUST be in Idle before the locomotives comes to a stop.
When operating the locomotive at speeds exceeding 25 MPH, reduce the throttle to a RUN 4 position at least eight seconds before the locomotive reaches a rail crossing. If the locomotive is operating in RUN 4 position or lower, or running less than 25 MPH, allow the same interval and place the throttle in the next lower position. Advance the throttle after all units of the consist have passed over the crossing. This procedure is necessary to ensure decay of motor and generator voltage to a safe level before the mechanical shock that occurs at rail crossings is transmitted to the motor brushes.
Under ABSOLUTELY NO CIRCUMSTANCES should the locomotive be operated through water deep enough to touch the bottom of the traction motors. Water any deeper than 3" above the rail is likely to cause traction motor damage.
When passing through any water on the rails, exercise every precaution under such circumstances and always go very slowly, never exceeding 2 to 3 MPH.
Instantaneous reduction of locomotive power together with automatic sanding functions to correct wheel slip. After adhesion is regained, a timed application of sand continues while power is smoothly restored. The system functions entirely automatically, and no action is required by the locomotive operator.
Depending upon the seriousness of slipping, the wheel slip light may or may not flash on and off as the wheel slip control system functions to correct the slips. However, the IDAC wheel slip control system reacts so rapidly to correct minor slips that the wheel slip light seldom comes on to indicate severe slips. The wheel corrective action is often seen at the load current indicating meter as a steady reduction of load current below that which is normally expected at full throttle for a given speed. Do not misinterpret this power reduction as a fault. It is simply the wheel slip control system doing its job and maintaining power at a level within the adhesion conditions established by track and grade.
NOTE: Whenever possible, operation on grades should be at full throttle position. Throttle reduction during wheel slip is recommended only when wheel slip conditions are such that repeated wheel slip causes severe lurching that may pull a train apart. Such severe conditions may indicate the need for a helper or the need to take the train up the hill in two parts.
If the wheel slip light blinks on and off slowly and persistently or burns continuously during locomotive operation, a pair of wheels may be sliding or circuit difficulty may exist. Due to the seriousness of sliding wheels, under such indications the locomotive should be IMMEDIATELY STOPPED and an investigation made to determine the cause. The wheels may be sliding due to a locked brake, damaged traction motor bearings, or broken pinion or gear teeth.
Repeated ground relay tripping, accompanied by unusual noises such as thumping or squealing, may also indicate serious traction motor trouble that should be investigated at once.
Do not allow any unit that must be isolated due to repeated wheel slip or ground relay action to remain a locomotive consist UNLESS IT HAS BEEN ABSOLUTELY DETERMINED THAT ALL OF ITS WHEELS ROTATE FREELY.
The maximum speed at which the locomotive can be safely operated is determined by the gear ratio. This ratio is expressed as a double number such as 62:15. The 62 indicates the number of teeth on the axle gear while the 15 represents the number of teeth on the traction motor pinion gear.
Since the two gears are meshed together, it can be seen that for this particular ratio the motor armature turns approximately four times for a single revolution of the driving wheels. The locomotive speed limit is therefore determined by the maximum permissible rotation speed of the motor armature. Exceeding this maximum could result in serious damage to the traction motors.
Various gear ratios are available to suit specific locomotive operating requirements, For each gear ratio, there is a maximum Operating speed. This information is given in the “General Data” section at the beginning of this manual.
Although not basically applied, overspeed protective equipment is available for installation on locomotives. The equipment consists of an electro-pneumatic arrangement with many possible variations to suit specific requirements, In general, however, an electrical switch in the speed recorder is used to detect the overspeed. This switch in turn initiates certain air brake functions which reduce the train speed.
If the units of the consist are of different gear ratios, the locomotive should not be operated at speeds in excess of that recommended for the unit having the lowest maximum permissible speed. Similarly, operation should never be slower than the minimum continuous speed (or maximum motor amperage) for units having established short time ratings.
To obtain a maximum tonnage rating for any single application, Electro-Motive will, upon request, analyze the actual operation and make specific tonnage rating recommendations.
Dynamic braking, on locomotives so equipped can prove extremely valuable in retarding train speed in many phases of locomotive operation. It is particularly valuable while descending grades, thus reducing the necessity for using air brakes. Depending on locomotive gear ratio, the maximum braking strength is obtained between 19 and 23 MPH. At train speeds higher than the optimum, braking effectiveness gradually declines as speed increases. For this reason, it is important that dynamic braking is started BEFORE train speed becomes excessive. While in dynamic braking, the speed of the train should not be allowed to “creep” up by careless handling of the brake.
To operate dynamic brakes, proceed as follows:
1. On units equipped with a field loop circuit for control of dynamic brakes, observe that the unit selector switch position in the lead unit corresponds to the number of units in the locomotive consist.
2. The reverse lever must be positioned in the direction of the locomotive movement.
3. Return throttle to IDLE and hold it in IDLE for 10 seconds before proceeding.
4. Move selector from No. 1 to OFF position.
CAUTION: The 10 second delay must be accompushed before the selector is moved to the "B" position. On locomotives delivered after December, 1969, braking delay occurs automatically. Do not misinterpret the delay as failure of the dynamic braking system.
5. Move the selector lever to the "B" or braking position. This establishes the dynamic braking circuits. It will also be noted that a slight amount of braking effort occurs, as evidenced by the load current indicating meter.
6. After the slack is bunched, the throttle is used to control dynamic braking strength. As it is advanced about 13 away from IDLE it will be noted that the engine speed automatically increases.
7. Braking effort may be increased by slowly advancing the throttle to full 8th position if desired. Maximum braking effort is automatically limited to 700 amperes by a dynamic brake current limiting regulator.
8. With automatic regulation of maximum braking strength, the brake warning light on the controller should seldom give indication of excessive braking current. If the brake warning light does flash on however, movement of the throttle handle should be stopped until the light goes out.
9. If the light fails to go out after several seconds, move the throttle handle back towards IDLE slowly until the light does go out. After the light goes out, throttle may again be advanced to increase braking effort.
NOTE: The brake warning light circuit is "trainlined" I so that a warning will be given in the lead unit if any unit in the consist is generating excessive current in dynamic braking. Thus regardless of the load (which may be less than brake rating), whenever the warning light comes on, it should not be allowed to remain on for any longer than two or three seconds before steps are taken to reduce braking strength.
10. Wnen necessary, the automatic brake may be used in conjunction with the dynamic brake. However, the independent brake must be KEPT FULLY RELEASED whenever the dynamic brake is in use, or the wheels may slide. As the speed decreases below 10 MPH the basic dynamic brake becomes less effective. When the speed further decreases, it is permissible to completely release the dynamic brake by placing the selector lever in the OFF or No. 1 position, applying the independent brake simultaneously to prevent the slack from running out.
The locomotive can be operated in dynamic braking U when coupled to older units that are not equipped with brake current limiting regulators. If all the units are of the same gear ratio, the unit having the lowest maximum brake current rating should be placed as the lead unit in the consist. The operator can then operate and control the braking effort up to the limit of the unit having the lowest brake current rating, without overloading the dynamic brake system of a trailing it. The locomotive consist MUST always be operated so as not to exceed the braking current of the unit having the lowest maximum brake current rating.
Units equipped with dynamic brake current limiting regulators can be operated in multiple with other locomotives in dynamic braking regardless of the gear ratio or difference in the maximum brake current ratings.
Units not equipped with dynamic brake current limiting regulators and of different gear ratios will require special operating instructions when used in multiple with an SD40 locomotive in dynamic braking.
Electrical relays in a bridge circuit with traction motors are used to correct the tendency of one pair of wheels to rotate slower due to an unusual rail condition while in dynamic braking.
When a pair of wheels is detected tending to rotate at a slower speed, the retarding effort of the traction motors in the unit affected is reduced (traction alternator field excitation is reduced in the unit affected) and sand is automatically applied to the rails. When the retarding effort of the traction motors in the unit is reduced, the tendency of the wheel set to rotate at a slower speed is overcome. After the wheel set resumes normal rotation, the retarding effort of the traction motors returns (increases) to its former value. 1 Automatic sanding continues for approximately seconds after the wheel slide tendency is corrected.
Prior to double heading behind another locomotive, make a full service brake pipe reduction with the automatic brake valve, and place the cutoff valve in CUTOUT position. Return the automatic brake valve handle to the release position and place the independent brake valve in release position. On 26L equipment place the MU valve in LEAD position.
The operation of the throttle is normal, but the brakes are controlled from the lead locomotive. An emergency air brake application may be made, however, from the automatic brake valve of the second unit. Also, the brakes on this unit may be released by depressing the independent brake valve handle while it is in the release position.
Basically, there is no difference in the instructions for operating the locomotive as a helper or with a helper. In most instances it is desirable to get over a grade in the shortest possible time. Thus, wherever possible, operation on the grades should be in the full throttle position. The throttle can be reduced, however, where wheel slips cause lurching that may threaten to break the train.
When the occasion arises where it becomes advisable to isolate a locomotive unit, observe the following:
1. When operating under power, a unit may be isolated at any time, but discretion as to timing and necessity should be used.
2. When operating in dynamic braking, it is important to get out of dynamic braking before attempting to isolate the unit. This is done by reducing the braking lever (throttle) to IDLE. The isolation switch can then be moved to START position to eliminate the braking on that unit. If the braking is resumed, other units will function normally. If field loop control of dynamic brakes is being used, do not change position of the unit selector switch.
1. Move the automatic brake valve handle to service position and make a 20-pound reduction.
2. After brake pipe exhaust stops, place cutoff valve in CUT OUT position by pushing dial indicator handle in and turning to the desired position.
3. Place independent brake in fully released position.
4. Place MU valve in the desired TRAIL position, depending on brake equipment on trailing units. (MU valve is located in the left hand side of the air pedestal. Push dial indicator inward and turn to desired position.)
5. Position automatic brake valve in handle off position. (Handle may be removed if so equipped.)
6. Place selector lever in OFF position.
7. Place reverse lever in neutral position and remove to lock controller.
8. At the controller, place all switches in the OFF position. Be absolutely certain that the control and fuel pump switch, generator field switch, and engine run switch are in the OFF position.
9. At the engine control panel, place headlight control switch in proper position for trailing unit U operation. Place other switches ON as needed.
10. At the circuit breaker panel, the control circuit breaker and the local control circuit breaker remain in the ON position.
NOTE: If the local control circuit breaker is inad vertently placed OFF at this time, the engine will shut down when the trainlined control circuit is re-established. However, the engine may be re-started in the normal manner after placing the local control circuit breaker ON.
11. After completing the operations outlined in the preceding steps, move to the cab of the new lead unit.
1. At the controller, make certain throttle lever is in IDLE, selector lever is in OFF, and the generator field switch is OFF.
2. Insert reverse lever and leave in neutral position.
3. Insert automatic brake valve handle (if removed) and place in SUPPRESSION position to nullify any safety control, overspeed, or train control used.
4. Insert independent brake valve handle (if removed) and move handle to full independent application position.
5. Position cutoff valve in either FRGT or PASS position depending on make up of the train.
6. Place MU valve in LEAD position.
7. At the circuit breaker panel, check that the control circuit breaker is in the ON position. Other circuit breakers remain ON.
8. At the engine control panel, place the headlight control switch in proper position, and other switches on as needed. If the unit selector switch is used it must be properly positioned.
9. At the controller, place the engine run, control and fuel pump, and generator field switch in ON position. Other switches may be placed ON as needed.
There are six ways to stop the engine.
1. Press stop button on engine control panel.
When the locomotive is standing still or under power, the isolation switch should be placed in STOP position. The stop button can then be pressed in to stop the engine. Since the reaction of the stop button is instantaneous, it need not be held in.
2. Press emergency fuel cutoff button.
Emergency fuel cutoff pushbuttons are located U near each fuel filter opening and on the engine control panel. These pushbuttons operate in the same manner as the STOP button and need not be held in nor reset.
3. Use layshaft lever.
The layshaft lever at the accessory end of the engine can be operated to override the engine governor and move the injector racks to the no fuel position.
4. Close the low water detector test cock.
When the low water detector trips, oil is dumped from the governor low oil shutdown device, stopping the engine.
5. Use throttle lever.
To stop all engines “on the line” in a cons’ist simultaneously from the cab of the lead unit, move the throttle to the IDLE position, pull the lever out and away from the controller, and move it beyond IDLE to the STOP position.
6. Pull out low oil shutdown rod on the side of the governor.
NOTE: Observe freezing weather precautions whenever an engine is shut down during cold weather.
1. Place the reverse lever in neutral position and the throttle in IDLE.
2. Place the selector lever in the OFF position and remove the reverse lever from controller.
3. Place isolation switch in START and press stop button IN.
4. Place all switches on the controller panel in the OFF position (down).
5. Place all circuit breakers and switches on the circuit breaker panel and the engine control panel in the OFF position and open all knife switches.
6. Apply hand brake and block wheels, if necessary.
7. Cover exhaust stack if there is danger of a severe rain.
8. Drain or otherwise protect engine if there is danger of freezing.
When a locomotive unit equipped with 26L air brakes is placed within a train consist to be towed, its control and air brake equipment should be set as follows:
1. Drain all air from main reservoirs and air brake equipment unless engine is to remain idling.
2. Place the MU valve in DEAD position.
3. Place cutoff valve in CUT OUT position.
4. Place independent brake valve handle in release position.
5. Place automatic brake valve handle in handle off position.
6. Cut in dead engine feature by turning cutout cock, Fig. 2-9, to open (90 deg to pipe) position. Dead engine cock is located beneath cab floor and may be reached through an access door of locomotive.
7. If engine is to remain IDLING, switches should be positioned as follows:
a. Isolation switch in START position.
b. Main battery switch and ground relay cutout switch is closed.
c. Generator field circuit breaker OFF.
d. AC control and filter blower circuit breakers ON.
e. Local control and control circuit breakers ON.
f. Starting fuse should be removed. Other fuses should be left in place.
g. Control and fuel pump switch ON.
h. Fuel pump circuit breaker ON.
i. Throttle in IDLE, selector in OFF, reverse lever in NEUTRAL. REMOVE REVERSE LEVER FROM CONTROLLER to lock controls.
8. If locomotive is to be towed DEAD in a train, switches should be positioned as follows:
a. All knife switches OPEN.
b. All circuit breakers OFF.
c. All control switches OFF.
d. Starting fuse removed.
e. Throttle should be in IDLE, selector in OFF. REVERSE LEVER SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM CONTROLLER.
NOTE: If there is danger of freezing, the engine cooling system should be drained.
As long as the diesel engine is running, the cooling M system will be kept adequately warm regardless of ambient (outside) temperatures encountered. It is only when the engine is shut down or stops for any reason that the cooling system requires protection against When danger of freezing is present, the cooling system should be completely drained or have steam admitted. The draining procedure is as follows:
1. Open the drain valve located at the floor in front of the engine. This will drain the engine, radiators, water tank, oil cooler, and air compressor.
2. With the cab heater supply valves open, cab heaters and associated piping are drained by opening drain valves located at the locomotive underframe under the left side of the cab.
3. After cooling system pressure has been released and draining has slowed, remove the wate tank fill cap to allow faster draining.
This section covers operational problems that may occur on th road and suggests action that may be taken by the operator in response to the trouble.
Safety devices automatically protect equipment in case of faulty operation of almost any component. In general this protection is obtained by one of the following methods:
1. Complete shutdown of the diesel engine, or complete elimination of a function such as dynamic braking.
2. Unloding of the diesel engine and restriction to idle engine speed. In some instances manual resetting of the function may be necessary, or automatic resetting after a time delay may be provided.
3. Rough back-up regulation for protection of equipment.
|Condition||Probable Cause||Suggested Operator's Response|
|Alarm bell rings - No alarm lights on in lead unit.
1. No loss of power felt.
Trailing unit hot engine.
No action required unless alarm persists. If alarm continues for more than a few minutes, investigate the cause of the alarm in trailing units.
|NOTE: If governor low oil plunger trips to shut the engine down, but the crankcase and low water detector buttons remain set, check oil and water levels. If oil level is satisfactory and water level is marginal, the hot oil detector (on units so equipped) may have tripped. There is no indicator for such a trip except a very hot engine condition. Allow the engine to cool before attempting to restart. Report engine shutdown circumstances to authorized maintenance personnel.|
|2. Loss of power felt.||Trailing unit reduced to idle speed and power or shut down.||No action for 10 seconds; then press the ground relay reset push button on the control stand if so equipped. In any case, if the alarm does not stop within a few minutes, investigate the cause of the alarm in trailing units.|
|Turbocharger Auxiliary Pump Light on.||Normal condition for 35 minutes after engine start or stop.||No action necessary|
|High Voltage Ground/Fault light on. Alarm bell rings.||Traction motor flashover||After 10 seconds, press the ground relay reset button on the control stand if so equipped. The light will go out and power will be restored. This will occur automatically on units so equipped.|
|High voltage path to ground due moisture or insulation failure.||Same response as above. If ground relay trip repeats only at high speed, temporary operation at lower throttle position may help to dry out the grounding circuit.|
|Excitation Limit light on; alarm ringing; no power.||Excitation system fault. High train speed.||Return throttle to idle or isolate the affected unit. This will reset the excitation limit lockout. Return unit to power. If excitation limit lockout again occurs and at high speed is not the probable cause, isolate the unit. If high speed is suspected, operate the unit at a lower speed.|
|No Power light on; alarm ringing. No other lights on.||Engine shut down. Control switches set up for operation.||Isolate the unit. Test auxiliary generator fuses. Replace if necessary. Restart engine.|
|Engine overspeed.||Reset overspeed trip lever. Restart engine. If trip occurs again, operation at lower throttle position may prevent further trip.|
|No Power light on; engine running; alarm ringing; unit will not load.||D14 or Aux. Gen. Fuses blown.||Test fuses; replace if necessary.|
|Hot Engine light on; Hot Engine light on; alarm ringing.||Tunnel or desert operation.||No action necessary unless alarm continues for more than a few minutes.|
|(See note on first troubleshooting page.)||If alarm continues, isolate the affected unit. If water level
is too low, shut the engine down.
If freezing conditions are possible, drain the cooling system. H :ij C C
|Governor Shutdown light on.||Low water due to leak, or low oil due to leak, or crankcase pressure continued operation. Otherwise place the isolation switch in isolate position. Drain the cooling system if freezing conditions are possible.||If shutdown is due to low water, the addition of water may enable due to cracked piston or bad cylinder seals, or hot oil due to plugged oil cooler.|
|WARNING: If crankcase pressure detector has tripped, make no further engineroom inspections. Do not attempt to restart the engine. Isolate the unit and drain the cooling system in accordance with railroad regulations.|
|No Power/No Battery Charge light on or battery charging indicator (if so equipped) shows discharge with engine running. Engine will shut down from lack of fuel.||Blown auxiliary generator fuse.||Test and replace blown fuses. If fuses are good and light is still on with the engine running. Shut the engine down. Observe freezing weather precautions.|
|Repeated automatic sanding along with load current indicating meter dropping back.||Normal wheel slip correction under sever conditions.||No action required. Do not reduce throttle unless slipping is so severe that lurching threatens to break the train.|
|Intermittent wheel slip light indications.||Normal wheel slip correction under sever conditions.||No action required. Do not reduce throttle unless slipping is
so severe that lurching threatens to break the train.
If the unit is so equipped, place the lead truck sanding switch in the on position while climbing the hill.
If the unit is so equipped, place the lead unit power reduction switch in the on position and slightly reduce lead unit power to enable it to dress the rail without slipping.
|PCS light on.||Penalty, or emergency brake application||Train stopped; reverser centered; throttle 4 engine operation to pump up brakes; return throttle to idle.|
|Brake Warning Light.||Regulating system failure||Place dynamic brake cutout switch on engine control panel of affected unit in the CUTOUT position.|